How to Start and Maintain a Worm Compost Bin

September 28, 2016 by  
Filed under Blog, Compost/mulch, Soils, Vermiculture

I've been planning to start a worm compost bin for the past seven years, but it was always one of those things that gets stuck on the to-do-list. With my compost tea setup and my starts suffering from poor quality soil, I'm in desperate need of a source of high compost. So, I finally ordered some worms and learned how to take care of them. A typical worm farm will not produce massive quantities of compost but it will produce a very high quality compost, and a small amount of good compost can be multiplied in a compost tea brewer. Also, I wanted to give scraps to the worms that my chickens won't or I don't want them to eat like egg shells, shredded paper, etc... I purchased a Worm Factory 360, so my instructions will involve using this bin setup to house my worm farm. However, the instructions are useful even if you have a DIY bin. I do not have any affiliation with the company, but I liked their design, thinking it would save me time and effort. Having said that, many people build cheap DIY worm bins with great success. Step 1 (Find a good location for your worm bin) Worms do best with bedding temperature between 55-75. This usually ends up being an average of day and night time air temperatures. So if it’s 80 in the day and 60 at night the soil will likely be 70. It’s important that the soil temp in your bin never exceeds 90 degrees or dips below 34 degrees. If the soil freezes, your worms will freeze and die. It’s also important that your worm bin is sheltered from the wind, the rain, the sun, and the snow. So, a porch, balcony, or basement is a good location. I’m planning to keep my bin along the north side of my house during the growing season under an overhang, then moving to my greenhouse in the winter, to keep the soil from freezing.  
My worm bin under the overhang behind my house.

My worm bin under the overhang behind my house.

  Step 2 (Preparing the bedding for your new worms) If your worm bin has holes on the bottom of it like mine, you’ll want to add a couple of sheets of newspaper on the bottom before putting in your worms, so they don’t leave. The worm factory 360 comes with a starter amount of coir (ground coconut fiber), pumice, and shredded paper, but you have other options. Dried leaves, ground eggshells, grit, and minerals are also good bedding components. Do not use lime. My plan is to mostly use shredded paper, with a small amount of ground eggshells. It is important that the bedding is moist but not dripping wet. If you squeeze the bedding and only a few drops of water come out, you’re good, but if water pours out, it is too wet. You should also add 2-3 cups of food for your new worms, in the corner of your bin. Cover your bin, and the bedding and food with 5-10 pages of damp newspaper. This will help to keep the bedding moist and keep the worms in. Then place the top on your bin.
Bedding for worms.

Bedding for worms.

Step 3 (Adding the worms) I ordered red wigglers, as they are commonly thought to be the best composting worms. When your worms arrive, remove the newspaper cover and place the worms along with the bedding they were shipped in into your bin. Replace the damp newspaper cover and your bin cover. Leave a light on for the first 2-3 days, as this will discourage your worms from leaving your bin. It is best to leave your worms alone for 2-3 days so they can become acclimated to their new home. After 2-3 days, check to see if the worms are eating. If they are, you can start to add food as needed.
newspaper cover.

newspaper cover.

Step 4 (Adding food) Ideally, you monitor your worms and feed as they need it. Do not overfeed, as this can lead to fruit fly outbreaks, and do not underfeed, as your worms could die, or will not process as much compost. When you add food, it should be 50% green material, and 50% brown material. The Worm Factory 360 has a nice design, where you add food to the top bin, and when you have four bins full, you can harvest compost from the bottom bin, and the worms will be at the top. Green materials include: fruits and vegetables, coffee grounds and tea bags, garden waste, and pasta and cereals. Brown materials include: Shredded paper, unsalted nut shells, dry leaves, cardboard, coconut coir, sawdust.   Dealing with leachate The Worm Factory 360 has a spigot on the bottom to drain any leachate. Leachate is the excess moisture that runs off your vermicompost. Leachate can contain toxins that are harmful to plants and humans. Leachate should be drained regularly, and if you’re getting more than 2-3 ounces of liquid per week, your compost is probably too wet. Leachate can have value as a fertilizer, but it can also have toxins, so I recommend using it on non-food plants.   Dealing with Pests A vermicompost bin is a living ecosystem with billions of organisms, such as: bacteria, protozoa, nematodes, fungi, and molds. These microbes are a necessary component of a healthy bin. Insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and other organisms will also visit and take up residence in your bin. These organisms range from helpful, benign, or damaging. Potworms are small white worms that can develop into massive populations. They are sometimes thought to be baby red wigglers. Pot worms are benign and do no damage to your worms or plants. They tend to thrive in wet, acidic environments, and when you are feeding lots of starchy foods. Earwigs and beetles are common in a compost bin, and are benign. Springtails and mites can compete with the worms for food and can drive the worms down to the bottom of your bin, hampering reproduction. Springtails are tiny, wingless insects that are usually white in color, but may also be yellow, green, gray, red, orange, or lavender. They have a springlike structure under their bellies that allows them to jump when disturbed, as high as 75 mm. Mites are small and usually whitish brown to reddish brown in color. Springtail and mite populations can be kept down by making sure your bin does not get too wet. Fruit flies are not harmful to your worms, but they can be a nuisance. Keep those fruits and veggies covered with your newspaper cover, and do not overfeed, to keep the fruit fly population in check. Millipedes are slow moving arthropods that are wormlike and segmented with many tiny legs. They are harmless. Centipedes, on the other hand are fast moving predators that will kill your earthworms. The only way to remove them is by hand, but be careful as they will pinch. I suggest wearing gloves, and relocate them to the garden, as they can be a valuable predator in other circumstances. Sow bugs and pill bugs are highly beneficial in a compost bin. Slugs and snails won’t eat your worms, but they will eat their food, and their eggs can be transferred to your plantings. To remove slugs and snails, take a covered plastic container and make 1 inch openings on the sides, then add an inch of beer to the bottom. Sink the container in the top tray of your bin. The slugs will be attracted to the beer, fall in, and drown. Ants are not a major problem, unless you have fire ants. Ants usually take up residence when the compost is too dry. Blow flies and house flies are not a problem, as long as you keep rotting meat, greasy food, and pet feces out of your bin. Soldier flies are extremely beneficial. If you have fly larvae in your compost, and you are NOT putting meats in your compost, then the larvae are likely soldier fly larvae, and beneficial and safe. Flat worms are slimy worms that are gray to brown in color with dark stripes running down their back. They have a hammer shaped head. They feed and move around at night. They thrive in high temperatures with high humidity. Flat worms are voracious predators of earthworms, so they should be removed if seen. You cannot cut them in half, as they will grow back from small pieces. It’s best to collect them in a sealed clear container and dry them in the sun.
Worms after one week.

Worms after one week.

How to Brew Compost Tea

June 28, 2015 by  
Filed under Blog, Compost/mulch, Permaculture, Soils

I am a founding member of the Lebanon Organic Gardening and Permaculture Club, here in Central Pennsylvania. The best part of the club is being able to collaborate and learn from other members. We currently have 61 members and growing. One of our members, Joe, is a permaculture designer, and he had the club over to his permaculture site to learn how to brew compost tea. He had a nice setup that I would like to copy.

Finished Compost Tea


I am not a big fan of traditional composting. I much prefer the Ruth Stoudt method of composting in place and feeding scraps to livestock. My main problem with composting is the time and effort required to make it. Compost tea is a different story. I love compost tea, because you can make a lot of compost tea from very little compost. Basically, you are taking a small amount of compost and growing the beneficial microorganisms by feeding them in an aerated slurry of water, molasses, and other nutrients. Once the beneficial microorganisms have multiplied, which usually takes 1-1.5 days, you can harvest the slurry and spread directly on your plants and soil giving them a huge boost. Compost tea will help with the overall health of your plants as well as their disease and insect resistance. In addition to the molasses to feed the microorganisms, other nutrients can be added as well, such as kelp. There are tons of compost tea recipes, so I won’t detail them here. Just know that at a minimum you’ll need some finished compost and something to feed the microorganisms, unsulphured molasses.  


1. At the very least, you’ll need a container, an aerator, some compost, and unsulphured molasses. It is important that you have good quality finished compost. Your brew will only be as good as your ingredients. If you have a worm farm, worm compost is best in my opinion. Do not use anaerobic compost. You’ll know if the compost in anaerobic because it will smell bad.


2. Place well water or rain water into your bucket or barrel and begin aerating the water for at least twenty minutes. City water is not great for the microorganisms. If that is the only water you have, aerate for 24 hours for the chlorine to off gas.

Aerating a 5 gallon bucket


3. Add about 1 pound of compost in a mesh sack or nylon panty hose per 8 gallons of water. This ratio can vary too. Nothing is set in stone with compost tea. Place your sack in the water. Tie it up to the lid or the side of your container so it does not fall in.

Putting in the compost in a nylon sock


4. Add your food sources. An ounce of liquid kelp, humic acid, and unsulphured molasses per 5 gallons of water is a simple recipe, that I like, but there are tons to choose from and don’t be afraid to experiment. Other common food sources are fish hydrolysate, soybean meal, oat bran, oatmeal, fish oils, cellulose, lignin, cutins, rock phosphate dust, and many others.

Unsulphured Molasses


5. Let the tea aerate for at least 24 hours, but not more than 36. If you brew beyond thirty-six hours, you risk anaerobic bacteria taking over. The brew will stink if it does. If that happens, do not put the brew on your plants. I just throw a bad brew in the grass, because I hate grass.

Compost Tea Brewing


6. If it smells good, spray the tea on your plants!

Garden Fertilizers

If you are growing an annual vegetable garden, having sufficient fertility is of paramount importance. Most people know that plants need nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to grow. These elements are represented on fertilizer bags everywhere in percentage terms by the three numbers prominently displayed. For example a 24-18-12 fertilizer has 24% nitrogen, 18% phosphorus, and 12 percent potassium. This is also an example of a chemical fertilizer. This I can tell simply because the percentages are too high for an organic fertilizer. An organic fertilizer rarely has more than a single digit percentage of any of the NPK ratio. There are also secondary elements and micronutrients that are often overlooked but still vital. For example, if you have a calcium deficiency you can apply all the NPK you want, but the plant will not be able to use it.

Keyhole Garden

What Plants Crave: (These are the basics, but there are many more micronutrients needed)

Nitrogen (N)

Phosphorus (P)

Potassium (K)

Calcium (Ca)

Magnesium (Mg)

Iron (Fe)

Manganese (Mn)

Molybdenum (Mo)

Zinc (Zn)

Sulfur (S)

Boron (B)

Chlorine (CI)

Copper (Cu)


The key to good fertility is diversity. There are many different techniques, manures, composts, and fertilizers to consider.


Crop Rotation:

If you rotate your crops, you will have less nutrient deficiencies in the soil. Also, using heavy amounts of nitrogen fixing crops will boost fertility in depleted soil. (Peas, beans)



Composted manures are a fantastic way to build fertility in the garden. Cow, pig, rabbit, chicken, and horse manures are most common. It is important to compost the manures before adding to your garden, because of the possibility of pathogens, weed seeds, and burning plants. Having said that, rabbit pellets do not burn plants, and I have applied “hot” un-composted chicken manure in the late fall after the garden was finished without issue. I have also applied chicken manure during the season in fallow areas, with a layer of mulch to cover.


Manures can be very nutritious for your plants or they can be lacking vital nutrients. It really depends on the nutrition of the animal that the manure comes from. Ideally, your manures come from your own animals that have a nutritious varied diet free of chemicals. If you import manures, it is important to know what the animals were fed.



I prefer composts to manures, because it is has more ingredients, and is safer to apply. Manures are often an important component of compost, but it is usually mixed with other materials such as straw, leaves, grass, vegetable scraps, and wood chips. The variety of sources helps to insure that you are less likely to be missing valuable elements.

Compost Teas:

Fertilizing your plants with compost teas directly on the leaves of the plant can yield tremendous quick results. This can be a great addition to traditional compost, manures, and fertilizers. Compost teas improve growth by providing beneficial organisms that repel pests and improve nutrient retention in the soil. Teas also help to build soil life and improve biodiversity.  

Compost (Sheet Mulch)


Wood mulch, leaf, straw, & living mulches such as nitrogen fixing clover add fertility to the soil, and protect soil life. It is vital to protect soil with a mulch of some kind.

Organic Fertilizer to be mixed

Organic Fertilizers:

Steve Solomon in Gardening when it Counts makes an excellent case for using what he calls a complete organic fertilizer. He describes a situation where he and his family were getting most of their nutrition from their garden. They ended up with some health problems relating to missing nutrients in his soil that ended up being deficient in the food they were eating. He also describes a neighbor’s family with health problems that uses only horse manure in his garden for fertility. This would probably never be noticed by most people, because most people don’t get the majority of their food out of their backyard. This struck a chord with me, because every year Denise and I get more and more calories out of our garden.


He swears by his complete organic fertilizer. He claims that your plants will grow like gangbusters, and the food will be highly nutritious and delicious. The recipe is as follows:


3 parts seed meal (flaxseed meal, alfalfa meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal etc…) Please be aware that many seed meals do contain GMO’s. I would recommend an organic alfalfa meal.

1 part blood and bone meal

1 part lime

1 part bone meal or kelpmeal


***Out of fairness to the author, I won’t give out all the specifics, and the rates of application. I don’t agree with some of the author’s practices such as tilling and not using mulch, but it’s still a good book. So if you want all the specifics, buy the book.


Chemical Fertilizers:

Chemical fertilizers give the highest amount of NPK for the price, but that fertility is typically available very quickly and adds salts to the soil negatively affecting soil life. There are coatings now that fertilizer manufacturers add to slow the release down, but they still can’t fool the soil life. I would highly recommend avoiding these fertilizers, especially since there are so many other good options.


The Bottom Line

In the past my plan has been to make extensive use of chicken manure, living clover mulches, some straw and wood mulch, and compost to take care of my fertility. The only problem has been the cost and labor to apply said compost and mulch. Now that my clover living mulch is taking over, I am going to try the complete organic fertilizer. I would also like to start making a compost tea with a worm bin. I will still use chicken manure as well. In the future, I will continue to try other methods to further explore what works best for my site. I think the key to having good fertility is a diversity of materials and methods.


Reference:  Steve Solomon, Gardening when it Counts

Why Bother Composting?

February 25, 2014 by  
Filed under Blog, Compost/mulch, Soils

Composting can seem pretty complicated. Depending on who you talk to, or what you read, you will find tons of different advice on how to get just the right “brew”. You’ll hear about having the perfect ratio of greens and browns, and putting them together in thin shredded layers. Then you hear about occasionally turning the pile to let the right amount of oxygen in, but not too often, as you are losing nitrogen. Then you have to have the right cooking temperature. You have to have it hot, but not too hot. Hot enough to cook, but not so hot that you burn up your nutrients. Then you have leaching to worry about, and rodents and other animals if you don’t cover your edible scraps. You have to keep the right moisture levels. Seriously, how practical is all this??????


Sometimes I wonder why composting has to be so complicated. First of all, all organic material decomposes, and most of the materials that you are going to put into your compost pile will decompose in one year without any turning or any special attention. Sawdust, tree branches, and paper tend to take much longer. I would suggest making a separate pile for woody material. You can use the woody pile for firewood, or even a hugelkultur bed. If you burn your wood pile, you can use the wood ash in your garden beds, but be careful. Too much wood ash can raise the soil PH beyond what is good for most plants. Definitely, keep wood ash away from acid loving plants like blueberries. Wood ash can add some calcium, potassium, and a small amount of phosphorus.


So, if most things will decompose in one year, why do people go to all this trouble to get it just right? People do this to speed up the process, and to get just the right nutrient levels in their compost that is suitable for their plants.    


What are the appropriate nutrient levels for compost?

This is a difficult question to answer, because it depends on the existing soil, climate, and types of plants where the compost will be applied. Furthermore, there is much debate in this area as well. This is where we should know about the carbon to nitrogen ratio. Most people advocate around a 25-1 ratio of carbon to nitrogen. Below is a list of approximate carbon to nitrogen ratios of various materials.


6:1- These high nitrogen sources are high nitrogen manures such as rabbit, chicken, and pig, as well as bone meals.

12:1- Horse and cow manure, vegetable scraps, weeds, spring grass

25:1- Green hay, fruit, summer time grass

50:1- Dry corn stalks, tree leaves, poor hay

100:1- Tree bark, pine needles

Source carbon-nitrogen ratios “Gardening when it Counts” Steve Solomon


How you get to that nice 25:1 ratio compost pile, really depends on what you are putting into it. If you have lots of leaves in your compost pile, you probably want to add rabbit or chicken manure to help bring down the carbon to nitrogen ratio. Also, you will want to mix the materials as they go in, which further complicates things. Unless you are really anal about the ratio, I would imagine most people never get it exactly right. My compost is a mix of chicken manure, grass clipping, and a small amount of leaves. All of my edibles that don’t get eaten go to the chickens.


I have tried many different ways of composting to find the most efficient way.


1. The two-chamber tumbler that you can easily turn, and put your wheel barrow under to collect the compost. This is a nice idea, but the latches on the doors are not durable enough. The tumbler is off the ground which is good for rodents, but bad for earth worms, and soil microbes. It is also a pain to lift heavy material up to put into the chambers.

Cost: High (I think this tumbler was in the $300-350 dollar range)

Labor: Medium (It’s easy to take out material, but it is hard to put it in)

Speed of compost: Fast (You can turn the material easily)


2. The standard two pile system where you add to one side until it is really full then you add material to the other side, while the first pile cooks. This is OK, but you still have to worry about leaching and rodents, and it’s a pain in the neck to shovel the compost out.   

Cost: Medium (You can make these out of old pallets, but it is still more expensive than just a pile)

Labor: High (What a pain to shovel in and out)

Speed of compost: Slow (Most people will not take time to turn the pile, what a pain)


3. The pile system is good if you have a tractor or front end loader. If not, you can use a fork. I've found that if the pile is too small, it doesn't heat up enough. If the pile is about 4 feet tall, then things seem to cook well, but I don't have any science to back that up, just observation. 

Cost: Low (I put low cost here, because it is taking up land space, which isn’t free)

Labor: High (Human labor can be low, if you have a tractor, but you are still using all the embodied energy in the diesel fuel)

Speed of compost: Medium (A bigger pile seems to compost a little quicker than a smaller pile)


So now that we know how to compost, I can tell you that I hardly compost at all anymore. I love solutions that are easy. We want to get rid of waste, and fertilize and amend our garden soils. Why do we need to put our organic material into a pile to do this? Why can’t we compost in place? Why bother moving it into a pile, only to be moved again later? It seems so inefficient.


A lot of permaculturalists and gardeners are going to the Ruth Stoudt method of sheet mulching or composting in place. I’ve been doing this for the past few years, and I really think it is the way to go. For me, I have a lot of grass and weed clippings, chicken manure, and leftover plant leaves and debris. Now I just spread my grass clippings thinly and evenly in my garden beds. I do keep the clippings from away from my plants, as they are hot while they are green. I try to put the clippings in areas where plants have recently finished, or in fallow areas. They do dry out in just a couple of days. When I prune, or when a plant is finished producing, I simply let it decompose in place. If it’s good enough for nature, it’s good enough for me. I put my chicken manure in swale trenches to feed my fruit trees, or in fallow areas of the garden. Chicken manure is hot, so you should keep it away from your plants, until it is composted.

Dried Grass Clippings

So at this point, the only extra step I need to make is to empty the deep litter trays in my chicken coops. This is the easiest way I have found to maintain good soil fertility and deal with any leftover organic materials. Thank you Ruth Stoudt!  

Compost, cheap and dirty

June 27, 2012 by  
Filed under Blog, Compost/mulch, Soils, Supplies

Wednesday 6-27-2012

Most  of us have not yet perfected our garden ecosystems to not need outside sources of compost to give our plants the fertility they need. If we have to bring compost or compost materials in, it might be a good idea to think about how we can source these materials cheaply, or better yet free!


Below is a list of where I can and sometimes do get some of my compost, mulch, and compost materials, and how much they cost me, and what I do with them.


1. Chicken manure- Free on site, composted in place


2. Grass clippings- Free on site, composted in place


Grass clippings composted in place next to plants (Right side of photo)


3. Fruit and vegetable scraps- Free on site, composted through the chickens


4. Junk mail- Free on site, composted in pile


5. Commercial chicken manure- $7 per ton from a local chicken farmer (I must supply the truck to pick up, and I must compost the manure very well, as the chickens were heavily medicated)


6. Wood mulch- $12 per ton from the local Lebanon County recycling facility


7. Compost- $12 per ton from the local Lebanon County recycling facility (The only drawback to this, is that the green waste that was used to make the compost may contain pesticides, as the feedstock comes from area residents and haulers.)


8. Wood piles- Free from a few neighbors. I would like to do a hugelkultur project at some point, and a few of my neighbors have good sized old wood piles that I’m sure they would be happy to let me have. I also know a local landscaper who said he would drop off wood at my house when he has tree work nearby.


9. Leaves- My neighbor blows all his leaves to the street for county pick-up in the fall. I’m sure he would not care if I took some. I have trees on my site, but they are still too small to generate leaves in much quantity. I like the idea of planting a few large deciduous trees downwind from my garden to harvest the leaves in place as mulch. I also like the idea of planting certain perennials that can be chopped and dropped to provide mulch to the nearby plants.


10. Human urine- Free on site, composted in place if diluted 10-1 with water.


11. Plant debris (Leaves and stems) – Free on site, and even better typically right next to where I want it to go.


The fast growing sunchoke hedge above is cut down periodically and the stems and leaves are used as mulch in the large adjacent garden bed

All About Composting Video

See my views and philosophy on composting.